Zheng He

Some Sources for the Zheng He Voyages

A. Original Sources

1. The original Chinese references to the Zheng He voyages are contained within the Ming shi-lu (or veritable Records of the Ming). These have been made available in English translation by Geoff Wade at the following site:

http://www.epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/person/4199

2. Other works which contain contemporary accounts of the voyages include:

a. Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores 1433 by Ma Huan, translated by J.V.G. Mills, with foreword and preface, Hakluyt Society, London 1970; reprinted by the White Lotus Press, Bangkok 1997.


b. FEI, Hsin. Hsing-ch'a sheng-lan, the overall survey of the Star Raft, translated by J.V.G.Mills, revised, edited and annotated by Roderich Ptak. [Series: South China and maritime Asia 4]. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1996, ISBN 3-447-03798-9.

B. Academic Studies

1. An Overview of the Zheng He Sexcentenary written by Bruce Doar for the Chinese Heritage Newsletter under the Chinese Heritage Project, Australian National University

http://www.chinaheritagenewsletter.org/articles.php?searchterm=002_zhenghe.inc&issue=002

2. Michael Bosworth on “The Rise and Fall of 15th-century Chinese Sea Power”

http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/china.htm

3. Louise Levathes’ work When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405 – 1433 (Oxford University Press, 1997) is a popular yet reasonably accurate account of the voyages. An introductory section of the work is presented here:

http://www.ripon.edu/academics/global/Levathes.html

4. A revisionist view of the Zheng He voyages by Geoff Wade, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore is presented as an online working paper here:

http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps04_031.pdf

5. Details of the trilingual stele erected in Sri Lanka by Zheng He

http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/galle/trilingual.html

6. The Zheng He exhibition held at the National Library of Singapore in 2005:

http://exhibitions.nlb.gov.sg/zhenghe/

7. Johannes Widodo’s paper “Admiral Zheng He and Pre-Colonial Coastal Urban Development in Southeast Asia”.

http://www.geocities.com/johannes_widodo/zhenghe.htm

8. An Overview of European-language Studies of the Pre-Modean East Asian Maritime Realm can be found here:

http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps03_016.pdf


9. For more general information on Maritime Asia, the following website is useful:

http://www.maritimeasia.ws/

C. Popular Media representations

1. Time Magazine was one of the earliest Western media to latch on to the Zheng He magic and ran a major story on the voyages in a 2001 issue

http://www.time.com/time/asia/features/journey2001/intro.html

2. Nicholas Kristof continued this with a piece in the New York Times:

http://www.nytimes.com/library/magazine/millennium/m3/kristof.html

3. National Geographic provide an online introduction to their 2005 issue on the Zheng He voyages:

http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0507/feature2/

4. Andreas Lorenz, in his Der Spiegel article, examines the recent resurgence in interest in Zheng He:

http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/spiegel/0,1518,372474,00.html


Please feel free to contribute details of appropriate publications –online and otherwise—to this section of 1421exposed.com
 


Eunuch-led Voyages to the Eastern and Western Oceans

Date of MSL Entry

Eunuchs named

To Which Places

1 Oct 1403

Ma Bin

Java (Western king)

10 Oct 1403

Li Xing

Siam

28 Oct 1403

Yin Qing

Melaka

11 Jul 1405

Zheng He and others

Various countries in the Western Ocean

12 Aug 1405

Wang Cong

Cambodia

30 Oct 1407

Wang Gui-tong

Champa

6 Sep 1408

Zhang Yuan

Siam

17 Oct 1408

Zheng He and others

Various countries in Western Ocean

7 Oct 1410

Ma Bin

Champa

13 Oct 1410

Zhang Qian (return)

Bo-ni

31 Dec 1410

Zhang Yuan

Siam

24 Feb 1411

Zhang Qian

Bo-ni

1 Sep 1412

Wu Bin

Java (Western king)

18 Dec 1412

Zheng He and others

Various countries in Western Ocean

15 Jan 1413

Hong Bao

Siam

1 Apr 1414

Zhu Yuan

Cambodia

13 Aug 1415

Hou Xian

Bengal and other countries

27 May 1416

Guo Wen

Siam

15 Oct 1417

Zhang Qian

Gu-ma-la-lang

15 Oct 1418

Lin Gui

Champa

3 Jun 1420

Yang Min

Siam

16 Oct 1420

Hou Xian

Zhao-na-pu-er

27 Feb 1424t

Zheng He

Old Por

29 Jun 1430

Zheng He and others

Various fan countries

1430s

Wang Jing-hong

Samudera

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